The Force and Motion Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose purpose is to support students in fields related to multi-axis force measurement and testing. Fully funded by AMTI, The Foundation awards travel grants and academic scholarships to aid promising graduate students on their paths to becoming the scientific leaders of tomorrow. The Foundation also serves as creator and curator of the Virtual Poster Session, an international resource for information exchange and networking within the academic community.


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Since its inception, The Foundation has granted $190,000.00 in academic scholarships and $34,000.00 in travel awards






The Academic Scholarship is now offered in cooperation with the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS)


Submit your Scientific Poster for 2017 4th Quarter $500 Academic Travel Scholarships now 




Recent Posters

Title:  Head Acceleration During Girls Youth Soccer Using Real Time Data
Emily Messerschmidt, Katlyn Van Patten, Ryan Lee, Srikant Vallabhajosula

Purpose/Hypothesis: While the acute effects of concussion have been the focus of research in the past, there is a new emphasis toward following the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head accelerations in athletics. This is especially important in youth athletes because the developing brain is more vulnerable to injury from head trauma in sports like soccer due to techniques such as heading, that can result in numerous head impacts throughout play. There is a current lack of evidence on the magnitude and frequency of head accelerations that occur during real-time youth sports, including soccer, and whether these accelerations have a detrimental cumulative effect. The purpose of the current study was to measure the head acceleration that youth athletes experience during real-time soccer games.
Number of Subjects: 31 under-15 girls club soccer participants. 11 players monitored each game.
Materials/Methods: 3 season games were observed. Triax Smart Impact Monitor headband accelerometers were worn during gameplay to collect real-time head impact data. Forces >10g were recorded. Games were video recorded for further analysis. Head impacts were categorized by type of impact: purposeful header (PH), player to player (PP), player to ground (PG), and ball to head (BH). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: A total of 171 impacts were observed (PH=20, PP=113, PG=36, BH=2). Only one impact recorded was above the concussion threshold of 70g. The majority (77%) of impacts observed were <10g. Of the accelerations recorded, PH resulted in the largest average acceleration (36.8±14.9g) followed by PG (20.5±4.2g), and PP (19.5±4.6g). The maximum accelerations for PH, PG and PP were 73g, 26g and 30g respectively. No BH accelerations were recorded >10g.
Conclusions: While PH yielded the highest average acceleration, it was one of the least frequently occurring impacts. PP impacts were most common however the majority produced little to no head acceleration. While there was variability of head acceleration that occurred within each type of impact, none produced consistently dangerous (≥70g) accelerations.

Clinical Relevance: This study provides preliminary evidence of the impacts sustained during girls youth soccer games for athletic trainers or sports physical therapists who are monitoring athletes for concussions. The findings reveal that the use of headband accelerometers to measure real-time data can be a useful tool to monitor multiple players on the field. There remains a need for further research into the effect of cumulative sub-concussive impacts during soccer in youth athletes with larger sample size. Further studies should investigate the impacts players sustain over multiple seasons to observe if those who experience multiple sub-concussive impacts report concussion-like symptoms or show concussion-like signs. Additionally, this study adds evidence to the existing literature that the use of video analysis to confirm the occurrence of impacts and to correctly categorize them is highly beneficial to ensure reliability in future studies.

Even prior to walking slower, older adults walk with a diminished push-off – decreased propulsive forces (FP) accompanied by reduced ankle moment and power generation. The purpose of this study was to identify age-related differences in the joint-level modifications used to modulate FP generation during walking. We posit that there are two possibilities for older adults to enhance FP generation. First, older adults may increase ankle power generation and thereby alleviate compensatory demands at the hip. Alternatively, older adults may opt to exacerbate their distal to proximal redistribution by relying even more on the hip musculature.
10 healthy young adults and 16 healthy older adults participated in this study. Subjects walked at their preferred speed while watching a video monitor displaying their instantaneous FP while instructed to modify their FP to match target values representing normal and ±10% and ±20% of normal. For all trials, we estimated lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics.
During normal walking, older adults exerted smaller FP and ankle power than young adults. Enhancing FP via biofeedback alleviated mechanical power demands at the hip, without changes in ankle power. Further, older adults walked with increased FP without increasing their total positive joint work. Thus, given the same total requisite power generation, older adults got ‘more bang for their ankle power buck’ using biofeedback.

INTRODUCTION: Cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is characterized by an osseous overgrowth on the femoral head-neck junction [1], leading to pain and limited range of motion (ROM) during daily life activities [2]. Corrective surgery is highly recommended and performed in order to reduce or eliminate pain and further development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is still unclear whether it would lead to improved functional mobility. The purpose was to compare kinematic variables of the operated limb between FAI patients when performing a squat task pre-surgery and at around 2-year follow-up. A secondary objective consisted of express the results in a biomechanical functional score to quantify the joint kinematics of FAI patients compared to healthy control (CTRL) participants.
METHODS: Eleven male patients (7 arthroplasty: 34.6±8.1 years, 25.7±3.2 kg/m2; 4 open: 33.3±7.1 years, 24.9±1.9 kg/m2) and 21 CTRL (2F/19M, 33.4±6.7 years, 25.4±3.3 kg/m2) participants were recruited from the orthopaedic surgeon’s clinical practice. Patients were assigned to either an arthroplasty or open FAI surgery correction. The participants signed prior to their participation a consent form approved by the hospital and university ethics board. Patients agreed to undergo motion analysis prior to and 2 years after the surgery. The CTRL were selected based on similar age and BMI as the FAI group and underwent the same motion analysis protocol.
At the local hospital, CT scan was performed in all participants to confirm an alpha-angle higher than 55º and also establish their pelvic and knee bony landmarks. At the motion laboratory, the participants were outfitted with 45 reflective markers and performed a minimum of five trials of deep squat at a self-selected pace. Three-dimensional joint kinematics (200 Hz) of the lower limbs were captured using a ten-camera motion analysis system (Vicon, UK). Kinematics data were processed in Nexus 1.8.3 (Vicon, UK) using a modified Plug-In-Gait model and exported with a custom MATLAB script (Mathworks, USA) to calculate group averages and extract relevant variables. All trials were time-normalized based on a full squat cycle (descent and ascent phases) and individual averages for each participant were calculated across the trials.
Four kinematic variables were included in the analysis: pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle sagittal angles. The normalized root-mean-square deviation (nRMSD) was calculated between the FAI and the CTRL groups for both pre- and post-surgery conditions, expressed by

The Force and Motion Foundation Updates...



The Force and Motion Foundation 

The Force and Motion Foundation is proud to announce that our current $10,000 scholarship will be awarded in cooperation with the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS). 


Please visit for more information on the Force & Motion Foundation/ ORS Young Scientist Scholarship. 


Congratulations to the 2017 3rd Quarter travel award recipients: Alison McDonald, Arian Iraqi, Danilo Catelli, Michael Browne, and Emily Messerschmidt  


Submit your 2017 4th Quarter Scientific Poster NOW for the F&M $500 Travel Scholarship! 


*F & M Foundation allows for one submission per year, per individual, with a total maximum award to be granted per individual of $2,500 over their lifetime, (5 submissions)


Please check back in the future for information on more scholarship offers